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Mar 13

Preparing for a warmer world : Towards a national system to protect water resources

Auteurs : MSAAD, M. BELBAHLOUL, B. BEAKO, A. ZOUHRI, A. ANOUAR (Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Environment University Hassan 1st, Faculty of Science and Technology, BP 577 Settat MOROCCO)

Asmaa MsaadPrésentée par : Asmaa MSAAD, Enseignante de chimie-physique et doctorante à la Faculté des sciences et techniques de Settat. Née le 14 février 1991 à Khouribga, titulaire de Master Génie des procédés à la Faculté des sciences et techniques de Fès en 2014 et de licence professionnelle à la faculté polydisciplinaire de Khouribga en 2012.

Résumé : Morocco is a North-African located at the southern edge of the mid-latitude storm track with a semi-arid climate similar to that of south-western Europe (Spain and Portugal), especially in the winter season [1], country where the vulnerability of the populations to extreme hydrological events is high [2]. Climate change poses a significant challenge for North Africa, affecting and interacting with both environmental and anthropogenic systems in the region.

Among the variables of interest are environmental degradation, agricultural productivity, food security, population growth and economic and societal instability [3].These effects of global environmental change will almost certainly alter patterns of human migration. Conventional narratives usually cast these displacements in a negative light, with many millions of people forced to move, and tension and conflict the result [4]. Climate change will affect current water management practices and the operation of existing water infrastructures, which are very likely to be inadequate to overcome the negative impacts of climate change on water supply reliability [5].

Against this background, and to reduce the effects of negative environmental change, wastewater treatment becomes a necessity, however different physic-chemical treatments have used expensive chemical reagent which has a great impact on environment [6]. A new approach based on epuration ability by using plants can be used as a renewable alternative [7].

The present study, evaluated the purifying power of a bio-flocculent, extracted from the pad of cactus Opuntia Ficus Indica, highly distributed in the Mediterranean area [8], in treatment of wastewater. The treatment is based on coagulation and flocculation that’s frequently applied in the primary purification of industrial wastewater (and in some cases in secondary and tertiary treatment) [9–10]. The results showed a very significant effect on the elimination of suspended matter with a yield of around 99%.

Mots-clefs : Climate change, migration,coagulation, flocculation, Cactus.

Bibliographie

[1] Driouech, F., Déqué, M., Mokssit, A., 2009. Numerical simulation of the probability distribution function of precipitation over Morocco. Climate Dynamics 32, 1055–1063.

[2] Douglas, I., Kurshid, A., Maghenda, M., McDonnell, Y., McLean, L., Campbell, J., 2008. Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa. Environment and Urbanization 20 (1), 187–205.

[3] Bekkoussa et al., 2008; Thomas, 2008; Lhomme et al., 2009; Sowers et al., 2011

[4] Foresight: Migration and Global Environmental Change Final Project Report (Government Office for Science, 2011); available at http://go.nature. com/somswg

[5] Kundzewicz, Z. W., Mata, L. J., Arnell, N., Döll, P., Kabat, P., Jiménez, B., Miller, K., Oki, T., Şen, Z. &Shiklomanov, I.(2007) Freshwater resources and their management. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (ed. by M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden & C. E. Hanson), 173–210. Cambridge University.

[6]J. Sánchez-MartínII , Improvement of the flocculation process in water treatment by using moringaoleifera seeds extract, University of Extremadura, 2012.

[7]Auckland Water Resources 2009, Overview of the effects of residual flocculants on aquatic receiving environments.

[8]Barbera, G.; Inglese, P. La ColturadelFicodindia; Edagricole: Bologna, Italy, 1993

[9] Manu B. Physico-chemical treatment of indigo dye wastewater. Coloration Technol 2007;123:197–202.

[10] Jiang JQ, Graham NJD. Pre-polymerized inorganic coagulants and phosphorus removal by coagulation – a review. Water SA 1998;24:237–44.